How to make Portland Cement (Step by Step Process)

A cement is a binder or, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials (concretes, stones, sands, etc) together. It is the basic ingredient of construction and widely used as primary construction material. It is a very sensitive ingredient. As it has the ability to enhance the viscosity of concrete, which provides the better locking of sand.And concrete together in a concrete mixture. Today We will know How to make Portland cement

How to make Portland Cement:

Portland Cement is manufactured after completing all following six steps one after another.

  1. Quarry- Raw Material Extraction
  2. Grinding, Proportioning, and Blending
  3. Pre-Heater Phase
  4. Kiln Phase
  5. Cooling and Final Grinding
  6. Packing & Shipping

make Portland Cement -Process Steps- 1: Quarry

The major raw materials of Portland Cement making are limestone, clay, and sand which cover calcium, silicon, iron, and aluminum.   Limestone is mainly for calcium. It is combined with smaller proportions of sand and clay. Sand & clay fulfill the need for silicon, iron, and aluminum.

Generally, portland cement plants are suitable where the quarry of limestone is near bye. It saves the extra fuel cost and minimizes cement-making cost.  Normally, Cement Raw materials are extracted from the quarry, and by a conveyor belt that raw material materials transported to the cement-making plant.

There are some other raw materials used for cement making. Say, shale, fly ash, mill scale, and bauxite are directly brought from other sources due to small requirements.

Before transportation of cement raw materials to the plant, large-sized rocks are crushed into smaller-sized rocks by crusher at quarry.

make Portland Cement:Steps-2: Proportioning, Blending & Grinding

The portland cement raw materials from the quarry are brought into the plant laboratory at which they are analyzed. They are crushed into powder before analyzing & laboratory test. Generally, limestone is 80% and the remaining 20% is clay. Limestone and clay are analyzed to make sure of their competency before the beginning of grinding.

Steps-3: Pre-Heating Raw Material

After grinding of Cement Material, it is ready to face the pre-heating chamber. The pre-heating chamber utilizes the emitting hot gases from the kiln. Pre-heating of the material saves the energy and make plant environmental friendly.

Steps-4: Kiln Phase

Kiln is a huge rotating furnace also called as the heart of cement making process. Here, raw material is heated up to 1450 ⁰C. This temperature begins a chemical reaction so-called decarbonization. In this reaction material (like limestone) releases carbon dioxide. The high temperature of the kiln makes a slurry of the material.

The series of chemical reactions between calcium and silicon dioxide compounds form the primary constituents of cement i.e., calcium silicate. The Kiln is heating up from the exit side by the use of natural gas and coal. When the material reaches the lower part of the kiln, it forms the shape of clinker.

Steps-5: Cooling and Final Grinding

After passing out from the kiln, clinkers are cooled by means of forced air. Clinker released the absorb heat and cool down to lower temperature. Released heat by clinker is reused by recirculating it back to the kiln. This too saves energy.

The final process of the 5th phase is the final grinding. There is a horizontal filled with steel balls. Clinker reaches in this rotating drum after cooling. Here, steel balls tumble and crush the clinker into a very fine powder. This fine powder is considered cement. During grinding gypsum is also added to the mix in a small percentage that controls the setting of cement.

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Steps-6: Packing and Shipping

Material is directly conveyed to the silos (silos are the large storage tanks of cement) from the grinding mills. Further, it is packed to about 20-40 kg bags. Only a small percent of cement is packed in the bags only for those customers whose need is very small. The remaining cement is shipped in bulk quantities by means of trucks, rails, or ships.

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